References - General


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General References
  1. Brignole M. Diagnosis and Treatment of Syncope.Heart 2007: 93; 130-136. Article PDF
  2. Brignole, M. The syndromes of orthostatic intolerance. E-journal of Cardiology Practice. 2007: 6(5). Access. http://www.escardio.org/communities/councils/ccp/e-journal/volume6/Pages/vol6n5.aspx
  3. Figueroa JJ, Basford JR, Low PA. Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010 May;77(5):298-306.  Abstract.  Article PDF.
  4. Freeman, Roy. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.NEJM 2008;358(6):615-624. Abstract
  5. Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G. Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. Am J Med 2003;115:33-40. Abstract.Article
  6. Goldstein D, Robertson D, Esler M, Straus S, Eisenhofer G. Dysautonomias: clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous System. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:753–763. Abstract.
  7. Gordon, Victor. Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Neuropathies. Presentation. Faculty of Pain Medicine. Autonomic laboratory, Melbourne Victoria. Assessed July 6, 2012.
  8. Grubb, Blair P. Neurocardiogenic Syncope and Related Disorders of Orthostatic Intolerance. Circulation 2005; 111: 2997-3006.  Abstract.   Article PDF.
  9. Grubb BP, Row P, Calkins H. Postural tachycardia, orthostatic intolerance and the chronic fatigue syndrome. In: Grubb BP, Olshansky B, eds. Syncope: Mechanisms and Management 2nd Ed. Malden, Mass: Blackwell/Future Press; 2005:225–244.
  10. Grubb BP, Kanjwal Y, Kosinski DJ: The postural tachycardia syndrome syndrome: A concise guide to diagnosis and management. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2006;17:108-112.
  11. Grubb BP. Postural tachycardia syndrome. Circulation. 2008;117:2814–2817. Abstract.  Article PDF.
  12. Grubb BP, Karabin B. Cardiology patient page. Postural tachycardia syndrome: Perspectives for patients. Circulation. 2008;118:e61–e62. Abstract. Article PDF.
  13. Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndromeQ J Med 2008; 101:961–965. Abstract.  Article PDF.
  14. IACFS/ME Fred Friedberg, Bateman L, Begested A, Davenport T, et al. Chronic Fatigue Sydrome Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Primer for Clinical Practitioners.May 2012. Last Accessed 07.31.2012. Primer PDF
  15. Jacob G, Costa F, Shannon JR, Robertson RM et al. The Neuropathic Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000;343: 1008-14.   Abstract.   Article PDF.
  16. Johnson JN, Mack KJ, Kuntz NL, Brands CK, Porter CJ and Fischer PR. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Pediatr Neuro 2010; 42:77-85. Abstract.
  17. Lapp, Charles. Treating CFS & FM: The Stepwise Approach. Webinar - CFIDS.org. May 20, 2010. Video. Slides. Slides with notes. Last Accessed June 30, 2012.
  18. Low P, Opfer-Gehrking T, Textor S, Benarroch E, Shen W, Schondorf R, Suarez G,Rummans T. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Neurology. 1995;45:519–525. Abstract.
  19. Low PA and Singer W. Update on Management of Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension. Lancet Neurol. 2008 May; 7(5): 451–458. Abstract. Article PDF.
  20. Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner and Shen W. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). J Cardopvasc Electrophysiology 2009; 20:352-358.  Abstract.  Article PDF
  21. Mathias CJ. Autonomic diseases: management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;74 Suppl 3:iii42-7.  Abstract.   Article.
  22. Mayo Clinic Staff. Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension). Web Article. Last accessed July 7, 2012.
  23. Medow MS, Stewart JM. The postural tachycardia syndrome. Cardiol Rev. 2007;15:67–75. Abstract.
  24. Medow MS, Stewart JM, Sanyal S, Mumtaz A, Stca D and Frishman WH. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension and Vasovagal Syncope. Cardiology in Review 2008;16(1):4-20. Abstract.
  25. Miokovic T, Armbrecht G, Felsenberg D, Belavy DL.Differential atrophy of the postero-lateral hip musculature during prolonged bedrest and the influence of exercise countermeasures. J Appl Physiol. 2011 Apr;110(4):926-34. Epub 2011 Jan 13. Abstract
  26. Morag R, Brenner BE, Brown D. SSyncope. June 27, 2012. Medscape Article.
  27. Moya, Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2009). European Heart Journal (2009); 30: 2631-2671. Abstract. Article PDF.
  28. Raj SR. The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2006;6:84–99.  Abstract.  Article PDF.
  29. Rowe PC, Calkins H.  Neurally mediated hypotension and chronic fatigue syndrome. Am J Med 1998;105:15S-21S. Abstract.
  30. Rowe PC, Barron DF, Calkins H, et al. Orthostatic intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. J Pediatr 1999;135:494-9. Article PDF.
  31. Rowe, Peter.General Information Brochure on Orthostatic Intolerance and Its Treatment. June 2010. Accessed from http://www.cfids.org/webinar/cfsinfo2010.pdf. Accessed May 28.2012.
  32. Rowe, Peter. Managing Orthostatic Intolerance. Webinar. September 1, 2010. Hosted by CFIDS Association of American. Accessed June 1, 2012.  Written material.  Slides PDF.   Video.
  33. Sakakibara R, Matsuda S, Uchiyama T, Yoshiyama M, Yamanishi T, Hattori T. The effect of intranasal desmopressin on nocturnal waking in urination in multiple system atrophy patients with nocturnal polyuria. Clin Auton Res 2003;13:106-8.   Abstract.
  34. Sandroni P, Opfer-Gehrking TL, McPhee BR, Low PA. Postural tachycardia syndrome: Clinical features and follow-up study. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74:1106–1110. Article pdf
  35. Shannon JR, Flattem NL, Jordan J, Jacob G, Black BK, Biaggioni I, Blakely RD, Robertson D. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine transporter deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:541–549.
  36. Stewart JM. Chronic orthostatic intolerance and the postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). J Pediatr. 2004;145:725–730.  Article PDF
  37. Stewart JM, Medow MS, Alejos JC. Orthostatic Intolerance. Medscape article.
  38. Thieben MJ, Sandroni P, Sletten DM, et al. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo Clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:308–313.  Abstract. Article PDF.
  39. Truijen J, Bundgaard-Nielsen M, van Lieshout JJ. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences
    for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 May;109(2):141-57. Epub 2010 Jan 7.  Abstract.  Article PDF.
  40. Vincent S, Robertson D. Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome. In: Robertson D, ed. Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. San Diego, Calif: Elsevier Academic Press; 2004:344 –345.
  41. Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Pyne DB, Nieman DC, Dhabhar FS et al. Position Statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.Accessed on web.  Article.
  42. Wedro, Benjamin, Stoppler, Mellissa. Orthostatic hypotension. Last accesssed: June 24, 2012. Article
  43. Winkelman, Chris RN, PhD, CCRN ACNP. Bed Rest in Health and Critical Illness: A Body Systems Approach. AACN Advanced Critical Care: 2009; 20(3); 254-266.  Abstract.


Author: Kay E. Jewell, MD
Page Last Updated: August 27, 2012